Look before you leap – a tale of two frogs
11/29/2011 23:25

Why did the painted frog disappear? Because its habitat was thought to be nothing more than a malaria-breeding “wasteland.” But there are no wastelands in nature.
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This November, two individuals, both thought to have been consigned to history, unexpectedly reappeared and promptly leaped to fame. Coincidentally, both are frogs.

One is Kermit the Frog. Back in the ’70s and ’80s, Kermit entertained us on The Muppet Show, which in the 1970s was probably the most widely syndicated television show in the world, and he even spawned (if you’ll excuse the pun) several Muppet movies. But the television show’s ratings eventually declined, and it was ultimately cancelled.

It looked like the end of the Muppets; everybody thought Kermit had croaked. And yet one determined Muppet fan has now brought Kermit and friends back to life in a new movie, The Muppets, which is proving surprisingly popular.

The other frog to make a surprising comeback recently is the Israel-painted frog, Discoglossus nigriventer. It was thought to be extinct since the 1950s when its native habitat of the Hula swamp valley was drained and no more frogs were to be found. Yet a single painted frog was just found in the newly re-flooded Hula nature reserve, restoring hope for the species.

It is my hope that Kermit the Frog and the Israel-painted frog have more in common than the fact that they are frogs and that they simultaneously and unexpectedly returned from extinction. Perhaps they both denote a societal improvement – or rather, society retreating from that which were previously and mistakenly thought to be advances and improvements.

Why did the Muppets disappear? The Muppets were all about innocence; singing, dancing, gentle humor, and always ultimately transmitting messages about loyalty, love and friendship. The only “edge” to them were Statler and Waldorf, the two cynical old men in the gallery who were constantly derisive (although even their taunts were restrained).

But as audiences became more “sophisticated,” the television and movie industry changed. Adults (and even children) were no longer interested in fabric hand-puppets; they wanted animatronic robots and 3D, computer-generated wizardry.

The wide-eyed innocence of singingand- dancing muppets became less popular. Audiences became Statler and Waldorf. They wanted entertainment that was sophisticated, by which was meant racy, biting and cynical. Eventually, even children became too advanced for cheery puppets. The Muppets were replaced by The Simpsons and eventually the horrible South Park.

Why did the Israel painted frog disappear? Because its native habitat was thought in the 1950s to be nothing more than a malaria-breeding “wasteland.” In the mid-20th century, mankind was drunk with its powers of technology and engineering, and decided to refashion such wastelands into more productive terrain.

The JNF decided to transform the Hula for agricultural use, and its drainage was trumpeted as a great national achievement.

Both Kermit and the Israel-painted frog disappeared as a result of mankind becoming more “advanced.” But you have to look before you leap. The “accomplishment” of draining the Hula, like other mid-20th century ideas about “improving” the natural world, turned out to be a disaster.

Stripped of natural foliage, the soil blew away. Water carrying chemical fertilizers began to pollute the Sea of Galilee instead of being absorbed by the swamp. And the peat in the dried-out swamp often ignited underground fires.

EVENTUALLY, PEOPLE realized that they should have more respect for God’s world. There are no “wastelands.”

The natural environment has developed with exquisite balance, and while we are able and entitled to develop it further, we should do so with tremendous respect and caution.

The Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel was thus formed, and the Hula was carefully re-flooded.

It is now an outstanding nature reserve which serves as a stopover for millions of migrating birds each year.

And maybe the Israel painted frog will now be able to make a comeback.

The return of Kermit the Frog may perhaps likewise signify, and help people realize, that the more “sophisticated” forms of popular culture do not represent a positive improvement. People are starting to wonder whether “advancement” is always progress.

When I began teaching about the animal kingdom in Jewish thought, I was surprised and disappointed to discover that people assumed my presentations were for children. Adults had been conditioned to believe that they were too advanced for animals and zoos, which are “just for kids.”

Yet when menageries were first introduced in the 19th century, they were very much seen as being for adults.

Why shouldn’t an adult marvel at the wonders of the natural world? Why is it considered more sophisticated to have outgrown such things? Or consider technology. We have more technology flooding our increasingly busy lives than ever before, but can we honestly say it has improved our lives? Do the drawbacks of being addicted to email and Twitter and Facebook perhaps outweigh the advantages? Are our children enriched by being plugged in? Are we really happier by always rushing to upgrade to the latest computer or smartphone? These questions deserve serious consideration. As Britain’s Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks noted recently, we live in a consumer society, where everyone always wants to advance their lives by accumulating more technology and possessions. But the material goods do not necessarily enrich their lives.

On a broader scale, we have often had to learn the hard way that technological innovation can have harmful consequences. Several years back, a fascinating book entitled Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences cited numerous examples of people who assumed that advances in technology would prove beneficial, and the ways in which those experiments backfired.

This is not, of course, to say that technology should always be avoided.

Rather, the point is that great caution should always be exercised.

Instead of just getting excited about what we could do, we must think about what we should do.

Kermit the Frog sung a famous and beautiful song, “It’s Not Easy Being Green,” about his learning not to be jealous of more spectacular creatures, and instead being happy with being a frog. Ultimately, the song was about learning to appreciate one’s lot in life. Perhaps the return of both of these frogs, Kermit and the Israelpainted frog, signifies that society is internalizing that message: Not every advance is an improvement.

The writer is the author of a variety of works on the relationship between Judaism, zoology and the natural sciences. His website is www.zootorah.com and he also maintains a popular blog, www.rationalistjudaism.com.


Second of frog species long thought extinct found in Israel nature reserve – Haaretz

The second Hula painted frog is of the opposite gender as the first one found by warden Yoram Malka at the Hula Nature Reserve two weeks ago.
By Zafrir Rinat and Shai Fogelman

A Nature and Parks Authority warden found a Hula painted frog on Tuesday, a species of frog that is unique to Israel and was thought to have become extinct more than 50 years ago. Hula Nature Reserve warden Yoram Malka found a similar frog in the same area two weeks ago, of the opposite gender.
frog – Gili Eliyahu – November 17 2011

Hula painted frog.
Photo by: Gili Eliyahu

“The discovery of the first frog hinted at the general area and hours of activity for this species,” Malka said. Malka invested great efforts in the last two weeks searching for other frogs of this variety.

The second Hula painted frog, a female, was found on Tuesday in swampy weeds, twenty centimeters deep, and at 13 grams weighs only half of her male counterpart. Nature and Parks Authority staff will be conducting tests in the days to come to try to learn more about the rare frogs, before they are re-released into the wild.

According to Dr. Dana Milstein, an ecologist with the Israel Nature and Parks Authority, the rare frog got its Hebrew name – agulashon shehor-gahon – from its black belly and round tongue, which, unlike that of other frogs, is not used to catch prey.

Malka’s first discovery two weeks ago shocked conservationists and scientists who deal with this field in Israel. The Hula painted frog had been one of the primary symbols of natural extinction in Israel after it had disappeared following the drying of Lake Hula in the 1950s.

“I saw something jump that didn’t look familiar,” said Malka. “I rushed over and caught a frog, and when I turned it over I saw that it had a black belly with white spots, the identifying mark of the painted frog. I immediately returned [with it] to the reserve’s office and took out the animal handbook, and I saw that what I had found look exactly like the painted frog that appears in the handbook.”

Dr. Sarig Gafni of Ruppin Academic Center’s School of Marine Sciences, an expert in amphibians, was immediately summoned to the reserve, and he arrived with the original scientific paper from 1940 in which the Hula painted frog was described.

“We went through the article, sign by sign, and checked all the indicators, including the distance between the eyes, and it is indeed a Hula Painted Frog,” said Gafni. “It’s very exciting; to me it’s like finding the Dead Sea Scrolls of nature conservation in Israel. We must remember that in the past, only three adult samples of this species had ever been found.”

For years Israeli researchers have been trying to locate the frog, searching in and around every spring and streambed in the area where the Hula marshes were dried up, but without success. Thus it was assumed that the act of drying up the Hula and the destruction of other natural habitats through pollution and development had sealed the fate of this unique species.
malka – Gili Eliyahu – November 17 2011

Yoram Malka holding a Hula painted frog.
Photo by: Gili Eliyahu

Milstein believes that the frog’s discovery is linked to environmental improvements in the Hula reserve. “In recent years, the water quality has improved, after they started to pour water from fish ponds and nearby springs into the reserve,” she said.