This section contains general references on peacebuilding.  For the Middle East, see “Peacebuilding and Conflict Resolution in the Middle East.”  The most recent items are at the top.  (note: under development)

Paffenholz, Thania and Christoph Spurk.  2006.  Civil Society, Civic Engagement, and Peacebuilding. World Bank. Social Development paper no. 36.

International negotiation. 2006.  Special issue: Coordination in conflict prevention, conflict resolution and peacebuilding: perspectives from scholars and practitioners involved with the alliance for peacebuilding. vol. 11 no. 1, pp. 1-223, 2006  Articles: Abstracts

Anderson, M.B. & Olson, L.  2003.  Confronting war: Critical lessons for peace practitioners. Cambridge, MA: The Collaborative for Development Action.

The findings in this publication are the result of a three year examination of many practical experiences of peace practice.  The Reflecting on Peace Practice Project has involved over two hundred international, national, and local peace agencies around the world. Through a collaborative learning effort, these agencies have pooled their experience and their wisdom to reflect on, assess, and learn more about the practice of peace. The purpose of this effort was to learn from experience what has worked and what has not worked, and why. Many joined this effort because they wanted to improve their effectiveness; they wanted to see if, and how, they could have a greater impact on the ending of war and the achievement of peace.

Organized by the Collaborative for Development Action (Cambridge, Massachusetts in the United States), the Reflecting on Peace Practice Project focused specifically on the peace practice of agencies that cross borders. It seemed clear that an international effort could not presume to improve peace practice undertaken by people in their own conflicts. However, in so many current conflicts, “outside” peace practitioners join with local activists to partner in their work. Consequently, it was essential also to engage peace agencies from areas of conflict in this exploration of the ways that external efforts can be truly helpful.

The first step in learning from experience is to gather a great deal of it. Over an eighteen month period, RPP conducted twenty-six case studies on a wide variety of types of peace efforts, undertaken in a range of geographical settings, in different stages of conflict, at different levels of society, and with varying forms of connectedness to local, indigenous peace efforts. (Appendix 1 lists these case studies.) These case studies were done at the invitation of the agencies involved, to capture their internal reflections on their work, as well as the views of a wide range of counterparts – participants, partnering local and international NGOs and other agencies, communities affected by the work, representatives of relevant levels of government, etc. The cases were conducted through field visits to the areas where the programs were undertaken.

As these case studies were collected, RPP organized several consultations bringing together more than eighty peace practitioners—again both those who live in conflict situations and those who work outside their own countries. These practitioners reviewed and reflected on what the cases were telling us.

From the case studies and the consultations, a series of issues emerged as central to effective peace practice but around which there remain significant differences of experience and belief.

Paffenholz, T., and L. Reychler. 2005. “Towards Better Policy and Programme Work in Conflict Zones. Introducing the ‘Aid for Peace’ Approach.” Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 2 (2), 6-23.

Tongeren, van P., M. Brenk, M. Hellema, and J. Verhoeven. 2005. People Building Peace II. Successful Stories of Civil Society. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Paris, R.  2004. At War’s End. Building Peace after Civil Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ricigliano, R.  2003. “Networks of Effective Action: Implementing an Integrated Approach to Peacebuilding.” Security Dialogue, 34, 4, pp. 445-462.

Abstract: Organizations in the peacebuilding field face the imperative of taking a holistic, integrated approach to peacebuilding that combines traditionally distinct disciplines such as human rights, humanitarian assistance, sustainable development, environment, conflict resolution, security, and the rule of law in order to be effective in today’s complex conflicts. The concept of a Network of Effective Action is proposed as a set of practices for collaboration that is capable of facilitating integrated approaches to peacebuilding both on the ground and in terms of the theoretical development of the field.

Smith, D. 2003. Towards a Strategic Framework for Peacebuilding. The Synthesis Report of the Joint Utstein Study on Peacebuilding. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.

Galama, A., and P. van Tongeren. 2002. Towards Better Peacebuilding Practice. On Lessons Learned, Evaluation and Aid and Conflict. Utrecht: European Centre for Conflict Prevention.

Reychler, L., and T. Paffenholz. 2001. Peacebuilding. A Field Guide. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

European Centre for Conflict Prevention. 1999. People Building Peace. 35 Inspiring Stories from Around the World. Utrecht: ECCP.

Paris, R. 1997. “Peacebuilding and the Limits of Liberal Internationalism.” International Security, 22 (2), 54-89.

Lederach, J. P. 1997. Building Peace. Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Hampson, F. O. 1996. Nurturing Peace. Why Peace Settlements Succeed or Fail. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Rupesinghe, K. 1995. Conflict Transformation. London: St. Martin’s Press.

Boutros-Ghali, B. 1992. An Agenda for Peace. Available online at: