Neimark, Benjamin and Bigger, Patrick and Otu-Larbi, Frederick and Larbi, Reuben, A Multitemporal Snapshot of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Israel-Gaza Conflict (January 5, 2024). Available at SSRN: or



The projected emissions from the first 60 days of the Israel-Gaza war were greater than the annual emissions of 20 individual countries and territories.

If we include war infrastructure built by both Israel and Hamas, including the Hamas’ tunnel network and Israel’s protective fence or ‘Iron Wall,’ the total emissions increase to more than over 33 individual countries and territories. 

The carbon costs of reconstructing Gaza are enormous. Rebuilding Gaza will entail total annual emissions figure higher then over 130 countries, putting on them par with that of New Zealand. 

The ad-hoc nature of these calculations point to the urgent need for mandatory military emissions reporting for both war and peacetime through the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). 

Keywords: Israel-Gaza War, Military Emissions, Climate Change, Greenhouse Gases

JEL Classification: Q34, Q54, Z1, Z13, Y10

full report available to download